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ECAT HT Validated by Top Physicists

ECAT HT Validated by Top Physicists

A number of physicists from Bologna University, Italy, Uppsala University, Sweden and Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden has verified the exothermal process of the ECAT (The Rossi Effect).

The goal was to perform an independent test in a controlled environment and to use high precision measurement equipment. Conclusion:

“The results obtained indicate that energy was produced in decidedly higher quantities than what may be gained from any conventional source.”

The entire report can be found on the page 3rd-Party-Report-shows-Anomalous-Heat-Production-the-Rossi-Effect.

Here follows a digestion of the content giving the essence of the report.

Summary of The Independent Third Party Report on the ECAT HT

Three different ECAT HT Tests was conducted

  1. November 2012 ECAT HT Test
  2. December 2012 ECAT HT Test
  3. March 2013 ECAT HT2 Test

November 2012 ECAT HT Test

In this

“…experiment the device was destroyed in the course of the experimental run, when the steel cylinder containing the active charge overheated and melted. The partial data gathered before the failure, however, yielded interesting results which warranted further in-depth investigation in future tests. Although the run was not successful as far as obtaining complete data is concerned, it was fruitful in that it demonstrated a huge production of excess heat, which however could not be quantified. The device used had similar, but not identical, features to those of the E-Cat HT used in the December and March runs.”

Noticeable at this test was that temperatures reached was so high at the outer surface,  (>800 C), that one could visually see local power differences and hence see more and less active areas of the charge within the reactor, distinctly from the generated power from the resistors.

Report_figs1-2

Figure 1.  (Figs. 1-2)

December 2012 ECAT HT Test

This test was performed at a much lower temperature than the November test to remove the risk of reactor runaway. A detailed data analysis was performed calculating heat losses by radiation and convection separately. The heat loss by conduction was assumed to be zero.

Radiated power was found to be, 1568 W and the convected power was found to be 466 W.

At the same time the average input power was, 360 W leading to a COP of 5.6. After error estimation the conclusion was, COP=5.6 ± 0.8.

Remarks on the test

“The device subject to testing was powered by 360 W for a total of 96 hours, and produced in all 2034 W thermal. This value was reached by calculating the power transferred by the E-Cat HT to the environment by convection and power irradiated by the device. The resultant values of generated power density (7093 W/kg) and thermal energy density (6,81 · 10^5 Wh/kg) allow us to place the E-Cat HT above conventional power sources.”

“Lastly, it should be noted that the device was deliberately shut down after 96 hours of operation. Therefore, from this standpoint as well, the energy obtained is to be considered a lower limit of the total energy which might be obtained over a longer runtime.”

Comparison was made with a standard Ragone plot where, especially, the energy density was off the charts and the conclusion was made that the Rossi Effect can not be a conventional energy source.

March 2013 ECAT HT2 Test

To this test a new design of the ECAT HT was made, which they refer to as ECAT HT2. Measurements was this time also done of the same reactor without the charge inside (now referred to as a ”dummy”) to compare it with actual measured data and not only to data performed by calculations. This enabled them to find out exactly how much input power required to reach the same temperatures as with the charge.

When COP was calculated in this test they arrived at COP= 2.6 ± 0.5 but this was later revised from the dummy test to COP = 2.9 ± 0.3, concluding that the output power was underestimated by >10%.

Remarks on the test

“An interesting aspect of the E-Cat HT2 is certainly its capacity to operate in self-sustaining mode. The values of temperature and production of energy which were obtained are the result of averages not merely gained through data capture performed at different times; they are also relevant to the resistor coils’ ON/OFF cycle itself. By plotting the average temperature vs time for a few minutes of test (Plot 3) one can clearly see how it varies between a maximum and a minimum value with a fixed periodicity.”

Report_Plot_3
Figure 2. (Plot 3)

“Finally, the complete ON/OFF cycle of the E-Cat HT2, as seen in Plot 3, may be compared with the typical heating-cooling cycle of a resistor, as displayed in Plot 6.”
“What appears obvious here is that the priming mechanism pertaining to some sort of reaction inside the device speeds up the rise in temperature, and keeps the temperatures higher during the cooling phase.”

Report_Plot_6
Figure 3. (Plot 6)

Conclusions

“The results obtained indicate that energy was produced in decidedly higher quantities than what may be gained from any conventional source. In the March test, about 62 net kWh were produced, with a consumption of about 33 kWh, a power density of about 5.3 · 10^5 W/kg, and a density of thermal energy of about 6.1 · 10^7 Wh/kg. In the December test, about 160 net kWh were produced, with a consumption of 35 kWh, a power density of about 7 · 10^3 W/kg and a thermal energy density of about 6.8 · 10^5 Wh/kg. The difference in results between the two tests may be seen in the overestimation of the weight of the charge in the first test (which was comprehensive of the weight of the two metal caps sealing the cylinder), and in the manufacturer’s choice of keeping temperatures under control in the second experiment to enhance the stability of the operating cycle. In any event, the results obtained place both devices several orders of magnitude outside the bounds of the Ragone plot region for chemical sources.

Even from the standpoint of a “blind” evaluation of volumetric energy density, if we consider the whole volume of the reactor core and the most conservative figures on energy production, we still get a value of (7.93 ± 0.8) 10^2 MJ/Liter that is one order of magnitude higher than any conventional source.

Lastly, it must be remarked that both tests were terminated by a deliberate shutdown of the reactor, not by fuel exhaustion; thus, the energy densities that were measured should be considered as lower limits of real values.”

Instruments used

Note: It measures TrueRMS so it will measure correct power input independent of the waveform of the electric input.

Note on ELFORSK

ELFORSK contributed to the expenses of the Swedish research group. Elforsk AB, which began operations in 1993, is owned by the Svensk Energi  and the Svenska Kraftnät. Svenska Kraftnät (Swedish national grid) is a state-owned public utility that has many different areas of work. One of Svenska Kraftnät’s important tasks is to transmit electricity from the major power stations to regional electrical grids, via the national electrical grid.

ELFORSK’s overall aim is to rationalize the industry-wide research and development. The business is organized into six program areas Hydro, Electricity and Heat Generation, Nuclear Power, Transmission and Distribution, Use, and Strategies and Systems.

The contribution from ELFORSK to the Swedish group for participating in the experiments is just a small part of a bigger goal set up by the organization. Read PDF here. 

Page 51. ELFORSK project goal:

  • Supporting scientific experiments that analyze the energy catalyzer, E-Cat, delivers the heating effect that has been reported in various demonstrations
  • Support the effort to determine the process that can cause the heating effect and what different parameters influences the effect. Analyze possible risks or other adverse effects
  • Analyze the importance of the process (if it works) for future electricity and heat production

Page 53. Budget ECAT 2012 200 kkr, 2013-2015 2000 kkr/year.

In addition, also stated in the validation report, the next step will be to perform a six month test of the ECAT HT.

Note on Authors

Prof. Giuseppe Levi

Evelyn Foschi

  • Bologna

Prof. Hanno Essén

Prof. Roland Pettersson

Prof. Torbjörn Hartman

Prof. Bo Höistad

Prof. Lars Tegnér

 

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3rd party report shows anomalous heat production – The Rossi Effect

Today a report of the third party verification of the ECAT technology was made public at arXiv.org.

Indication of anomalous heat energy production in a reactor device containing hydrogen loaded nickel powder

Abstract: 

An experimental investigation of possible anomalous heat production in a special type of reactor tube named E-Cat HT is carried out. The reactor tube is charged with a small amount of hydrogen loaded nickel powder plus some additives. The reaction is primarily initiated by heat from resistor coils inside the reactor tube. Measurement of the produced heat was performed with high-resolution thermal imaging cameras, recording data every second from the hot reactor tube.

The measurements of electrical power input were performed with a large bandwidth three-phase power analyzer. Data were collected in two experimental runs lasting 96 and 116 hours, respectively. An anomalous heat production was indicated in both experiments. The 116-hour experiment also included a calibration of the experimental set-up without the active charge present in the E-Cat HT. In this case, no extra heat was generated beyond the expected heat from the electric input. Computed volumetric and gravimetric energy densities were found to be far above those of any known chemical source. Even by the most conservative assumptions as to the errors in the measurements, the result is still one order of magnitude greater than conventional energy sources.

Conclusions

The two test measurements described in this text were conducted with the same methodology on two different devices: a first prototype, termed E-Cat HT, and a second one, resulting from technological improvements on the first, termed E-Cat HT2. Both have indicated heat production from an unknown reaction primed by heat from resistor coils. The results obtained indicate that energy was produced in decidedly higher quantities than what may be gained from any conventional source. In the March test, about 62 net kWh were produced, with a consumption of about 33 kWh, a power density of about 5.3 · 105, and a density of thermal energy of about 6.1 · 107 Wh/kg. In the December test, about 160 net kWh were produced, with a consumption of 35 kWh, a power density of about 7 · 103 W/kg and a thermal energy density of about 6.8 · 105 Wh/kg. The difference in results between the two tests may be seen in the overestimation of the weight of the charge in the first test (which was comprehensive of the weight of the two metal caps sealing the cylinder), and in the manufacturer’s choice of keeping temperatures under control in the second experiment to enhance the stability of the operating cycle. In any event, the results obtained place both devices several orders of magnitude outside the bounds of the Ragone plot region for chemical sources.

Even from the standpoint of a “blind” evaluation of volumetric energy density, if we consider the whole volume of the reactor core and the most conservative figures on energy production, we still get a value of (7.93 ± 0.8) 102 MJ/Liter that is one order of magnitude higher than any conventional source.

Lastly, it must be remarked that both tests were terminated by a deliberate shutdown of the reactor, not by fuel exhaustion; thus, the energy densities that were measured should be considered as lower limits of real values.

The March test is to be considered an improvement over the one performed in December, in that various problems encountered in the first experiment were addressed and solved in the second one. In the next test experiment which is expected to start in the summer of 2013, and will last about six months, a long term performance of the E-Cat HT2 will be tested. This test will be crucial for further attempts to unveil the origin of the heat phenomenon observed so far.

Authors:

  • Giuseppe Levi Bologna University, Bologna, Italy
  • Evelyn Foschi Bologna, Italy
  • Torbjörn Hartman, Bo Höistad, Roland Pettersson and Lars Tegnér Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden
  • Hanno Essén Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden

Download the 3rd party report from ECAT.com [1,9MB]

From  arXiv.org:
Indication of anomalous heat energy production in a reactor device

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ECAT.com launches new website

ECAT.com has migrated over to a new and robust server in order to meet future demands. New visual design, updated content and integrated with social media platforms. We hope you’ll like it!

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The ECAT featured on Swedish Television

ECAT on Swedish Television

On the 17th of December the Swedish Television featured Andrea Rossi and the ECAT on the program  Vetenskapens Värld (World of Science)

“Part 16 of 16: Cold Fusion to replace nuclear power, hoping even large power companies. Forums talk about infinite energy – critics argue that it is a big scam. Host: Victoria Dyring. Vetenskapens värld”

Sveriges Television (SVT) is the Swedish public service television company with the widest range of programming of all TV companies in Sweden. SVT is together with the public service radio (SR) the most trusted Swedish media and enjoys a very good support from the Swedish TV audience since its inception in 1956.

Thanks to Hampus Ericsson for the translation.

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Leonardo Corp releases new ECAT test data

LEONARDO CORPORATION

REPORT ON THE INTERNAL TEST PERFORMED ON THE “HOT CAT”

Report date: October 9th 2012

NOTICE : THIS REPORT IS ISSUED BY LEONARDO CORPORATION, NOT BY A THIRD PARTY. TESTS PERFORMED BY AN INDEPENDENT THIRD PARTY WILL BE RELEASED UPON COMPLETION OF THE SAME.

IN THE PRESENT REPORT, WE ARE PRESENTING DATA OBTAINED BY US THROUGH A PARALLEL TEST PERFORMED WITH THE SAME INSTRUMENTATION USED BY SAID THIRD PARTY, ON THE SAME REACTOR, THE SO-CALLED “HOT CAT”.

PLEASE CONSIDER THESE FIGURES AS THOSE WE REASONABLY EXPECT TO SEE CONFIRMED IN THE FORTHCOMING INDEPENDENT THIRD PARTY TEST.

THE REACTOR WAS MANUFACTURED IN THE USA.

MEASUREMENT INSTRUMENTATION WAS CHOSEN SUBSEQUENTLY TO THE SWEDISH TEST PERFORMED ON SEPT. 6TH.

MEASUREMENTS WERE THEREFORE PERFORMED WITH THE MAXIMUM POSSIBLE PRECISION, AVOIDING THE USE OF AMP CLAMPS AND VOLTMETERS, IN PLACE OF WHICH THE INSTRUMENT DESCRIBED IN ATTACHMENT # 2 (MODULATED BY A VARIAC INSTEAD OF A TRIAC POWER SOURCE) WAS USED.

DATA

Please take note of the data format: a period  “.” is used to indicate the decimals and a comma “,” to indicate the thousands, not vice versa as in many countries; for instance, 2,000.00 means “two thousand point zero hundredths”.

REACTOR DESCRIPTION

The reactor is a cylinder having the following dimensions:

  • Length: 33 cm
  • Diameter: 8.6 cm

(See photos in the Penon Report attached)

Surface: 891 cm

The internal cylinder has been eliminated; energy measurements were performed on the external surface only, through the Stephan-Boltzmann equation.

Weight without charge: 4331 g

Weight before test: 4351 g

Weight after test: 4350 g

Charge weight: 20 g

 

Test started: Sept 25th at 08.00 AM

Test completed: Oct 9th at 08.00 AM

Total duration of the test: 336 hours

 

OPERATION

Time from reactor startup to full power: 4 hours

Reactor shutdown time: 4 hours

Net operation time for stabilized reactor: 328 hours

 

TEMPERATURES

Average room temperature: 25 °C

Temperature reached after 4 hours: 1050 °C

Average temperature for the following 328 hours: 1050 °C

 

POWER CONSUMPTION

Self-sustaining mode operation, total time:  118 hours

Peak power consumption: about 5 kW

Average power consumption: about 2.4 kW (two point four kW)

 

TOTAL ENERGY CONSUMED

kWh 278.4

 

ENERGY PRODUCED

T(°K)4 = 2.838 * 1012

Wh = 2.838 * 1012 * 5.67 * 10-8 * 8.91 * 102 * 10-4 =  14.337 Wh * h-1 (fourteen point three hundred and thirty-seven kWh per hour)

TOTAL ENERGY IRRADIATED

kWh 3.268

COP

3.268/278.4 = 11.7 (eleven point seven)

POWER DENSITY

163.4 MW * kg-1 (one hundred and sixty-three point four MWh per kg)

(see the Ragone Plot at p. 15 of the Penon Report attached)

INSTRUMENT USED FOR MEASURING 

TEMPERATURE ON THE EXTERNAL SURFACE:

Optris PI 160 Camera (see Attachment 1)

INSTRUMENT USED FOR MEASURING POWER 

CONSUMPTION DURING THE TEST 

Tursdale Technical Services, PCE-830 (See Attachment 2)

EXTERNAL REACTOR SURFACE COATING

Black paint, proprietary formulation, resistant up to 1200° C, made specifically for Leonardo Corp. by Universokrema, Treviso, Italy.

 

This test is under scrutiny by an independent third party.

DIRECTOR OF THE TEST:

DR. ANDREA ROSSI

CEO

LEONARDO CORPORATION